Ketamine is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It induces a trance-like state while providing pain relief, sedation, and memory loss. Other uses include sedation in intensive care and treatment of pain and depression.Heart function, breathing, and airway reflexes generally remain functional. Effects typically begin within five minutes when given by injection, and last up to approximately 25 minutes.
Common side effects include agitation, confusion, or hallucinations as the medication wears off. Elevated blood pressure and muscle tremors are relatively common. Spasms of the larynx may rarely occur. Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist, but it may also have other actions.
Ketamine was discovered in 1962, first tested in humans in 1964, and approved for use in the United States in 1970. It was extensively used for surgical anesthesia in the Vietnam War due to its safety. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicine It is available as a generic medication. Ketamine is also used as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic and dissociative effects.
KETAMINE AS Anesthesia
Uses as an anesthetic:]
- Anesthesia in children, as the sole anesthetic for minor procedures or as an induction agent followed by neuromuscular blocker and tracheal intubation
- Asthmatics or people with chronic obstructive airway disease
- As a sedative for physically painful procedures in emergency departments
- Emergency surgery in field conditions in war zones
- To supplement spinal or epidural anesthesia/analgesia using low doses
- it suppresses breathing much less than most other available anesthetics, ketamine is used in medicine as an anesthetic; however, due to the hallucinations it may cause, it is not typically used as a primary anesthetic, although it is the anesthetic of choice when reliable ventilation equipment is not available.